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A photocopy of the original publication is available for $15 US or $20 CDN. Email Tory Hoff at drhoff@drhoff.com to order.

TAKEN FROM:
TOWARD A BIBLICAL VIEW OF MAN: SOME READINGS
Edited by Dr. Arnold H. De Graaff & Dr. James H. Olthuis
INSTITUTE FOR CHRISTIAN STUDIES
Toronto, Ontario
1978


NEPHESH AND THE FULFILLMENT IT RECEIVES AS PSUCHE

by Tory Hoff
General Outline

Introduction, Page 2
Common definition for soul; Greek influence; 20th-Century emphasis on the wholeness and unity of man; problem of interpreting nephesh in light of present-day views of soul; influence of cultural anthropology on early Biblical classics; synthetic thinking revealed in a 'grasping of a totality'.
Further assumptions, Page 3
Hebrews thought and lived in the concrete and not the abstract; linguistic unity and fluidity of nephesh; synthetic thinking of the Hebrews' perceived imagery associated with nephesh which created a 'theme' that was intrinsic to the meaning of nephesh.
Linguistic data, Page 5
Throat or neck as the organ through which nephesh breathed;Accadian and Ugaritic cognates; nephesh in the blood; questions on the nature of the association of nephesh to the throat, neck, breath, and blood.
Nephesh in the Old Testament, Page 6

A. thematic imagery: the threat of danger and the need for deliverance, theme from an experiential viewpoint revealed emotional content in a peculiar context.

B. nature of man described in Gen. 2:7, nephesh of a stranger and the implication; views of Pedersen, John­son, and Wolff; nephesh and its particular status in creation.
nephesh dependent upon nourishment, especially food, to afflict nephesh was to fast; emotional aspect in context of a 'nephesh experience'.
C. answer to questions on the relation of nephesh to body parts, throat as the organ through which nephesh received vital nourishment and breathed neshamah and life-giving ruah; nephesh vulnerable at the neck; nephesh equated with the blood; sacred nephesh as the 'core' of human living.
D. nephesh and leb,
both desired yet not in the same way; wicked nephesh devoured.
E. nephesh and death,
death as the weakest form of life; rephaim dwelt in sheol but nephesh; sheol and the sea; Jonah overboard; to die in honour or shame; nephesh ceased at death; corpse as nephesh could bring defile­ment; semantic polarization?
F. demonstration of unity and fluidity of nephesh, magical necklets of Is. 3:20; nephesh hayyah referred to either man or animal; God as nephesh could almost perish if...; enumerated nephesh in bondage but are given a promise.

Transition to psuche in the New Testament, Page 11
Use of the plural beginning with the exilic period; writers of the New Testament molded the Greek language to form Hebrew conceptions; abstaining from food with blood and food strangled; psuche for trans­lating Old Testament quotes and expressions using nephesh.
Psuche in the New Testament, Page 12

A. Christ developed the theme into the New Testament message, sacrificing psuche drinking his blood; psuche saved despite even death; how James, Peter, and Paul demonstrated this development in their epistles.

B. verses susceptible to misinterpretation, Acts 20:10, psuche that returned; Heb. 4:12, division of psuche and pneuma; I Pt. 2:11, passions of the flesh against psuche III Jn. 2, psuche was sound despite poor health; I Thes. 5:23, body, soul, spirit?; Rev. 8:9, 20:4, psuche slain and beheaded yet life after death?

C. review of Schweizer's article, problems on the relation of nephesh to both the 'true life' and the 'physical life'; his questions; his positive contribution

Understanding the fulfillment of the promise, Page 15
Contradiction that death presents; monism and dualism; observation of death as an origin of the body/soul dualism; Israelites did not have to reduce themselves to a misconceived hope; psuche, fish, and baptism; analogy of the seed; new status for psuche.
Bibliography, Page 17

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